Who is the Father (or Mother) of Philosophy?
It is impossible to identify one person who is supposed to be the “father” or “mother” of philosophy, but Diotima, Socrates, Plato, Aspasia of Miletus, Aristotle, Hypatia of Alexandria, Confucius, Lao Zi and Ban Zhao might be considered influential figures within their respective traditions. (more...)
What Is a Valid Argument?
Critical Thinking basics
In a valid argument, it is not possible that the conclusion is false when the premises are true. Or, in other words: In a valid argument, whenever the premises are true, the conclusion also has to be true. (more...)
What Is Philosophy in Simple Words?
Philosophy is a field of study that attempts to answer questions that cannot be answered by providing some fact, but that require a deeper understanding of the question. (more...)
What Is a Fallacy?
Critical thinking basics
A fallacy in Critical Thinking is an error in argumentation that makes an argument invalid. (more...)
What Does ‘Stoic’ Mean?
A short history of Stoicism
A ‘Stoic’ attitude to life aims to achieve lasting happiness by staying calm, rational and emotionally detached, while cultivating one’s virtues. (more...)